This republication of Letters of Denization & Acts of Naturalization for Aliens in England & Ireland, 1603-1700, was edited by William A. Shaw and published by the Huguenot Society of London in 1911.
The first instance of legislatively making a foreigner into an English subject was recorded in 1295, when Elias Daubeny was granted by the grace of King Edward I, the right to be held as an Englishman.
The distinction between denization and naturalization can be traced to the early 15th century and was inextricably connected to the King's finances and the taxation on foreign merchants. Although denization conferred certain rights on a foreign merchant, it also meant that as an 'alien' he was subject to twice the taxation of a natural subject. However, by the reign of the Tudors the distinctions between denization and naturalization became clearly defined. Naturalization provided full rights to a citizen, especially the right and ability to own and transmitting land, whereas the rights of denization, superior to that afforded an alien, did not include the right to own or convey land. Denization became stereotyped as the favour of the Monarch and naturalization the right of Parliament and as such a number of Acts, such of the Irish Naturalization Law and the Plantation Naturalization Law, passed into English Common Law, which codified the criteria for naturalization.
Documentary sources for denization are drawn from the Patent Rolls and a number of subsidiary sources including the Signet Office Docquet Book and the Privy Seals as well as the Patent Rolls of Ireland. The Letters of Denization & Acts of Naturalization covers the periods from the accession of James I until the end of the reign of William III and is especially interesting during the period of the so-called 'Great Migration', when England and Ireland became the refuge for Protestants fleeing religious persecution. During this period grants of denization were made without fee on 'humanitarian' grounds and included large numbers of Huguenot refugees in England and Ireland. Numbered amongst the denizens were foreign soldiers and officers in the employ of William of Orange before and after he acceded to the throne.
In the main the records for naturalization are more fulsome than those for denization, requiring as they did a bill of Parliament. The records of Irish Denizations and Naturalizations date from the third year of the reign of James I are draw almost exclusively from the Irish Patent Rolls. In total the Letters of Denization & Acts of Naturalization is republished in 457 pages over 100 of which treat on Irish denizations naturalization and is fully indexed and fully searchable on this edition.
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This extraordinary book was published in 1892 by the Liverpool author, journalist and political activist John Denvir. To this day it remains one of the most important sources we have about the nineteenth century Irish, as witnessed by its continued inclusion on university reading lists. The number of Irish people in Britain grew dramatically in the 1800s, especially in Liverpool. In 1841 over 50,000 Liverpudlians were Irish-born, which had increased to over 70,000 in 1881. These Irish settlers generally came looking for work, or to migrate further to the US but ran out of money. The hardships they experienced were extreme. Denvir had a unique understanding and appreciation of the Irish experience in Britain. Though born in Bushmills, Co. Antrim, he spent his life among the immigrant Irish in Liverpool. He grew up there during the Famine witnessing the horrors of the fleeing victims as they made their way to Liverpool. This had a permanent effect on his political outlook, and Denvir edited and published various Irish interest newspapers like The Irish Programme, The United Irishman and The Nationalist. These newspapers were pointedly political, and he played a leading role in the Irish National League. He had even been an active Fenian for a time.
The first 110 pages details the history of the Irish in Britain before 1800, and is best treated as background reading for the main body of his 462 page book! His coverage of the nineteenth century is quite a different matter. At its heart is an analysis of census figures and other statistical data about the settlement of the Irish in Britain, looking at each individual place that they settled in through time. But what brings his study alive is his own experience of the community, as well as the knowledge he had gained as a journalist over many decades. This is especially valuable when he looks at the experience of the vast majority of the urban Irish poor. He is also detailed about the important development of various Irish political movements in Britain, which he knew well, like the Repeal Movement, Young Ireland, the Fenians, Land League, and British movements with significant Irish involvement like the Chartists.
While Denvir's outlook is clearly political, it also contains a wealth of useful data about this neglected topic. In short it is an essential tool for those studying the Irish in Britain in the 19th century.
The official title of this parliamentary paper is:
"Return of the Assessed Value of the Townships in the Newcastle District in Western Canada, which were settled by Pauper Emigrants from Ireland, between the years 1825 and 1828 at the public expense:
Of the number of various Emigration Societies formed in Canada in 1840, by Canadian Proprietors desirous of Settling Emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland upon their Estates. (1848)"
This parliamentary paper publishes the correspondence and extensive supporting documents of the British government with the Governor-General of Canada concerning the settlement of poor Irish in the Newcastle District in 1826 ("Mr. Robinson's Emigrants"). This was the result of a Commons request to be furnished information on the settlement as it had been publicly funded. Initially the Governor-General just sent updated valuations of the relevant townships (Ashpodel, Douro, Dummer, Emily, Ennismore, Ops, Otonabee and Smith) which had since be redesignated as part of the District of Colbourne. But following further demands for information he sent a detailed breakdown of every plot settled by Irish paupers in 1826 by Peter Robinson. This table lists the lot number, concession, acreage, name of the 1826 settler, number of acres cleared by 1847, number of horses and horned cattle on the plot, and the total number of the settler's family. Lastly the table gives notes on the name of the present occupant of the lot, their relationship to the settler, and any other critical pieces of information (like relationship to other settlers, or the place they have relocated to, etc.). In total around 360 plots are covered, giving details on over 700 people.
The paper also deals with an associated question raised by the Commons in London. They had requested to find out about societies set up privately to promote the settling of people from Britain and Ireland in 1840. As a consequence a full report was delivered with particulars of the formation of "The Canada Emigration Association," established at Toronto in 1840. In an accompanying report with this collection of documents about the association and its members, it is stated that the association did not last for more than the first year, due to lack of support.
While this is a short publication of only 18 pages, it is an essential resource for the Robinson Irish settlers.
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While this is the second edition of this book it is the first edition published in Ireland. Much of the contents of this book focus on practical issues facing those emigrating to the United States and looks to dispel any of the romantic notions the Irish emigrant may have had towards America. It does contain many useful tips for emigrating, such as surviving the trans-Atlantic crossing, securing employment on arrival, farming, notes on the climate and condition of the land including prices and also general expenses.
The guide also contains very useful tips on travelling once you have arrived as well as notes on the history of the country as well as brief notes on each individual state. The guide also included a copy of the American Constitution as well as general advice and observations on the people and notes on naturalization and citizenship.
The guide concludes with an alphabetical list of the trans-Atlantic steamers and details of the pricing, ports of departure and arrival. This guide was an essential source for those emigrating to America.
This extraordinary book, was a private collection of 20 separately published pieces relating to work by the Committee of Mr. Tuke's Fund. This fund was established in 1882 to assist emigration from the west of Ireland to America, specifically the Unions of Belmullet, Newport & Swineford in Co. Mayo, and Clifden, Oughterard and the Aran Islands in Co. Galway. 9,482 people were assisted by this fund up to 1885, and this book contains a vast amount of detail about the working of the fund, but also about the experience of the emigrants themselves. This includes extensive descriptions of the places where emigrants came from, the emigrants themselves, the process of emigration (including anecdotal reports on their experiences), where they went (USA, Canada and Australia), a detailed list of the specific places they were settled in the US, dates of emigration and sailing details. Most unusually the book contains extensive letters home from the emigrants on arrival. It also analyses what happened to their small holdings in Ireland after they left, giving a full list of emigrants' names and the townlands they came from.
This one-off book also has an inserted hand written letter from James H. Tuke to the Duke of Bedford, President of the Committee, explaining that he was sending him this copy of the Reports to better understand the experience of his fund to that date.
Below you will find relevant Eneclann CD-ROMs, which we also supply. Eneclann is a partner in the Archive CD Books Ireland Project, and their CDs are essential resources for genealogists and historians alike.
The records compiled on this CD-ROM provide a valuable insight into transatlantic passenger travel during the period 1858-1870. Owing to the threat of a Fenian uprising in Ireland, and because of the large amounts of Irishmen living in America, Dublin Castle ordered that the incoming passenger lists for all the major ports of Britain and Ireland, of passengers arriving from America, be submitted to them for scrutiny. The American Civil War, 1861-1865, only made the threat from America more real in government officials eyes.
However, Irish names are just one part of this collection. Scottish, English and Americans names were also recorded. The figures breakdown as follows:
As well as providing details on the names of individuals you can also discover in which class they travelled, their final destination, age, marital status and even occupation. It is the most complete list known to exist. It includes:
Over 42,000 names and details of passengers
Information on over 150 ships
And the 815 voyages undertaken
Help files and detailed introduction
This CD-ROM is a must for all those studying migration from North America to Britain, Ireland and Continental Europe, as well as the passenger ships that carried them.
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